Chp14 The Gathering Tempest Fall 2012

The South Expands: Slavery and Society 1820-1860

The Domestic Slave Trade

Cotton Production in the South, 1820–1860. Cotton production expanded westward between 1820 and 1860 into Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and western Tennessee.

  • Was slavery immoral?

  • Slave Ownership

A slave buyer offers cash for men, women, and children in this 1835 advertisement.

Aristocratic Planter Society


Planters defend slavery

  • control slaves lives

  • Middle class planters

  • smallholders

Slave Treatment

  • Planter Fear

  • Planter punishment and sexual abuse

Throughout its existence, slavery in America encouraged white men to exploit black women for sexual purposes and to abuse black men and women physically. Virginian Luxuries, painted c. 1810, aimed to expose and ridicule these practices.

Poor Southern Whites

  • In Debt

African American Culture

Enslaved black women often had the responsibility of raising their masters’ young children. The women’s duties sometimes forced them to neglect the needs of their own children.

Evangelical Black Protestantism

  • Synthesis of African and European American culture
  • Second Great Awakening
  • Spread of Black Christianity
  • Black Kinship

African American Resistance to Slavery

  • work stoppage
  • slave revolts
  • escape

Free Blacks in America

  • inferior competitors
  • non-citizens
  • Black Institutions

Which of the following was the most important cause of the Civil War:

economic differences, political failures, or slavery?